S. Alice Long, PhD
Dr. Alice Long received her BS degree in Biology from Macalester College in St. Paul, MN, and earned her PhD in Immunology from Emory University in Atlanta, GA. She then pursued post-doctoral studies at the University of California at Davis studying the etiology and pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis, an autoimmune disease of the liver. She next joined a Seattle-based biotechnology company, Xcyte Therapies, where she helped develop adoptive T-cell therapies for multiple diseases. In 2005, she joined Benaroya Research Institute (BRI) as a staff scientist in the laboratory of Dr. Buckner where she applied her T-cell therapy experience to adoptive Treg therapy in T1D while studying the etiology and pathogenesis of T1D. In 2011, she joined the faculty at BRI and is currently a Research Associate Member and Manager of the Human Immunophenotyping Core.
Area of Research
Dr. Long’s lab is a translational immunology lab focused on discovering how the adaptive immune system is dysregulated in human autoimmunity. Specifically, her current research includes three inter-related projects in the setting of T1D.
- Causes and consequences of reduced response to IL-2 in CD4 T cells of T1D subjects,
- cellular definition, function and stability of CD8 T cell exhaustion associated with beneficial response to therapy and
- identification of biomarkers of progressors vs non-progressors.
Long SA, Thorpe J, DeBerg H, Gersuk V, Eddy J, Harris K, Ehlers M, Herold K, Nepom G and Linsley. Partially exhausted CD8 T cells are linked with clinical response to teplizumab in new-onset type 1 diabetes, under review Science Immunology 2016.
Hundhausen C, Roth A, Whalen E, Chen J, Schneider A, Long SA, Wei S, Rawlings R, Kinsman M, Evanko S, Wight T, Greenbaum C, Cerosaletti K, and Buckner J. Enhanced T cell responses to IL-6 in type 1 diabetes are associated with early clinical disease and increased IL-6 receptor expression, Science Translational Medicine, In Press 2016.
Bluestone JA, Buckner JH, Fitch M, Gitelman SE, Gupta S, Hellerstein MK, Herold KC, Lares A, Lee MR, Li K, Liu W, Long SA, Masiello LM, Nguyen V, Putnam AL, Rieck M, Sayre PH, Tang Q. Type 1 diabetes immunotherapy using polyclonal regulatory T cells. Sci Transl Med. 2015 Nov 25;7(315):315ra189. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aad4134. PMID: 26606968
Rigby MR, Harris KM, Pinckney A, DiMeglio LA, Rendell MS, Felner EI, Dostou JM, Gitelman SE, Griffin KJ, Tsalikian E, Gottlieb PA, Greenbaum CJ, Sherry NA, Moore WV, Monzavi R, Willi SM, Raskin P, Keyes-Elstein L, Long SA, Kanaparthi S, Lim N, Phippard D, Soppe CL, Fitzgibbon ML, McNamara J, Nepom GT, Ehlers MR and the Immune Tolerance Network (ITN). Alefacept provides sustained clinical and immunological effects in new-onset type 1 diabetes patients. J Clin Invest. 2015 Aug 3;125(8):3285-96. PMID: 26193635, PMCID: PMC4623571.
Gupta S, Cerosaletti K, Long SA. Renegade homeostatic cytokine responses in T1D: drivers of regulatory/effector T cell imbalance. Clin Immunol 2014; 151(2):146-154.
Cerosaletti K, Schneider A, Schwedhelm K, Frank I, Tatum M, Wei S, Whalen E, Greenbaum C, Kita M, Buckner J, Long SA. Multiple autoimmune-associated variants confer decreased IL-2R signaling in CD4+CD25hi T cells of type 1 diabetic and multiple sclerosis patients. PLoS One 2013; 8(12):e83811. PMCID: PMC3871703.
Bollyky JB, Long SA, Fitch M, Bollyky PL, Rieck M, Rogers R, Samuels PL, Sanda S, Buckner JH, Hellerstein MK, Greenbaum CJ. Evaluation of in vivo T cell kinetics: use of heavy isotope labelling in type 1 diabetes. Clin Exp Immunol 2013; 172(3):363-374. PMCID: PMC3646435.
Long SA, Buckner JH, Greenbaum CJ. IL-2 therapy in type 1 diabetes: "Trials" and tribulations. Clin Immunol Rev 2013; 149(3):324-331.
Schneider A, Long SA, Cerosaletti K, Ni CT, Samuels P, Kita M, Buckner JH. In active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, effector T cell resistance to adaptive T(regs) involves IL-6-mediated signaling. Sci Transl Med 2013; 5(170):170.
Long SA, Rieck M, Sanda S, Bollyky JB, Samuels PL, Goland R, Ahmann A, Rabinovitch A, Aggarwal S, Phippard D, Turka LA, Ehlers MR, Bianchine PJ, Boyle KD, Adah SA, Bluestone JA, Buckner JH, Greenbaum CJ; Diabetes TrialNet, Immune Tolerance Network. Rapamycin/IL-2 combination therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes augments Tregs yet transiently impairs β-cell function. Diabetes 2012; 61(9):2340-2348.
Long, SA, Rieck, M, Tatum, M, Bollyky, PL, Wu, RP, Muller, I, Ho, J, Shilling, HG and Buckner, JH. Low-dose antigen promotes induction of FOXP3 in human CD4+ T cells. J.Immunol 2011; 187(7):3511-3520.
Long SA, Cerosaletti K, Ho J, Jia-Yin W, Tatum M, Wei S, Shilling H, Buckner J. An autoimmune-associated variant in PTPN2 reveals an impairment of IL-2R signaling in CD4+ T cells. Genes Immun 2011; 12(2):116-125.
Long SA, Cerosaletti K, Bollyky PL, Tatum M, Shilling H, Zhang S, Zhang Z-Y, Pihoker C, Sanda S, Greenbaum C, Buckner JH. Defects in IL-2R signaling contribute to diminished maintenance of FOXP3 expression in CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells of T1D subjects. Diabetes 2010; 59(2):407-415.