MHC “tetramers” are a multivalent synthetic mimic of the peptide binding proteins found on the surface of antigen presenting cells. Our tetramers are produced from soluble biotinylated Class II α a/b dimers conjugated around a fluorescent labeled streptavidin core. Class II tetramer reagents are a flow cytometry reagent that can be used to study human CD4+ T cell responses in a wide variety of disease settings. Because of the exquisite sensitivity and specificity of the MHC-peptide-TCR complex, tetramers can be used to individually label, enumerate, and sort T cells with one known antigen specificity.
The Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason is pleased to distribute tetramer reagents for use by the scientific community through our Tetramer Core Laboratory. For specific guidelines for using these reagents, see the link below.
Tetramer Methods and Staining Protocol used at BRI" (PDF, 692KB)
Recent journal publications on MHC class II tetramers:
Differentiation stage determines pathologic and protective allergen-specific CD4(+) T-cell outcomes during specific immunotherapy. Wambre E, Delong JH, James EA, Lafond RE, Robinson D, Kwok WW. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Oct 3. [Epub ahead of print]
Human CD8+ and CD4+ T Cell Memory to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infection. Kotturi MF, Swann JA, Peters B, Arlehamn CL, Sidney J, Kolla RV, James EA, Akondy RS, Ahmed R, Kwok WW, Buchmeier MJ, Sette A. J Virol. 2011 Nov;85(22):11770-80. Epub 2011 Sep 7.
Uveitis-associated epitopes of retinal antigens are pathogenic in the humanized mouse model of uveitis and identify autoaggressive T cells. Mattapallil MJ, Silver PB, Mattapallil JJ, Horai R, Karabekian Z, McDowell JH, Chan CC, James EA, Kwok WW, Sen HN, Nussenblatt RB, David CS, Caspi RR. J Immunol. 2011 Aug 15;187(4):1977-85. Epub 2011 Jul 15.
Papillomavirus-specific CD4+ T cells exhibit reduced STAT-5 signaling and altered cytokine profiles in patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. James EA, DeVoti JA, Rosenthal DW, Hatam LJ, Steinberg BM, Abramson AL, Kwok WW, Bonagura VR. J Immunol. 2011 Jun 1;186(11):6633-40. Epub 2011 Apr 29.
Ara h 1-reactive T cells in individuals with peanut allergy. DeLong JH, Simpson KH, Wambre E, James EA, Robinson D, Kwok WW. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 May;127(5):1211-8.e3. Epub 2011 Apr 2.
T-cell responses in two unrelated hemophilia A inhibitor subjects include an epitope at the factor VIII R593C missense site. James EA, van Haren SD, Ettinger RA, Fijnvandraat K, Liberman JA, Kwok WW, Voorberg J, Pratt KP. J Thromb Haemost. 2011 Apr;9(4):689-99. doi: 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04202.x.
Chow IT, James EA, Tan V, Moustakas AK, Papadopoulos GK, Kwok WW. DRB1*12:01 presents a unique subset of epitopes by preferring aromatics in pocket 9. Mol Immunol. 2012 Feb;50(1-2):26-34. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2011.11.014. PMC3433834
Kwok WW, Tan V, Gillette L, Littell CT, Soltis MA, LaFond RB, Yang J, James EA, DeLong JH. Frequency of epitope specific naïve CD4+ T cells correlates with immunodominance in the human memory repertoire. J Immunol. 2012 Mar 15;188(6):2537-44. PMID:22327072
Arlehamn CS, Sidney J, Henderson R, Greenbaum JA, James EA, Moutaftsi M, Coler R, McKinney DM, Park D, Taplitz R, Kwok WW, Grey H, Peters B, Sette A. Dissecting mechanisms of immunodominance to the common Tuberculosis antigens ESAT-6, CFP10, Rv2031c (hspX), Rv2654c (TB7.7), and Rv1038c (EsxJ). J Immunol. 2012 May 15;188(10):5020-31. PMC3345088
Yang J, James EA, Sanda S, Greenbaum C, Kwok WW. CD4+ T cells recognize diverse epitopes within GAD65: implications for repertoire development and diabetes monitoring. Immunology 2013 Mar;138(3):269-79. doi: 10.1111/imm.12034. PMC3573280
Lindestam Arlehamn CS, Gerasimova A, Mele F, Henderson R, Swann J, Greenbaum JA, Kim Y, Sidney J, James EA, Taplitz R, McKinney DM, Kwok WW, Grey H, Sallusto F, Peters B, Sette A. Memory T cells in latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are directed against three antigenic islands and largely contained in a CXCR3(+)CCR6(+) Th1 subset. PLoS Pathog. 2013 Jan;9(1):e1003130. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003130. PMC3554618
Chow I-T, James EA, Gates TJ, Tan V, Moustakas AK, Papadopoulos GK, Kwok WW. Differential binding of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 epitopes by DRB1*08:01 and DRB1*11:01 is predicted by their structural motifs and correlates with disease risk. J Immunol. 2013 May 1;190(9):4516-24. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1202445. PMID: 23543758
Yang J, James E, Gates TJ, DeLong JH, LaFond RE, Malhotra U, Kwok WW. CD4+ T cell recognize unique and conserved 2009 H1N1 hemagglutinin epitopes after natural infection and vaccination. Inter Immunol. 2013 Mar 22. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23524391